Etymology of the Words Baron and Baroness
The word baron can be traced to the Late Latin word “baro,” which referred to a male servant, mercenary, or soldier. The word “barus” in Salic and Alemannic Law can also be traced to the modern word baron, and the word barus also refers to a mercenary or male of a similar social rank. The first instance of the word baroness was traced to Gaulish documents discovered in the first century. Initially, a female baron was misinterpreted as translating to “dunce” due to the Latin word bāro, which directly translates to “simpleton.” Others theorize that the word baroness actually was derived from an unknown Celtic source, but there is not ample evidence to support the claims.
Historical Modifications and Trends of the Title of Baron
In the Kingdom of England during medieval times, baro or baronis was a title used to identify a tenant-in-chief who held land by the feudal tenure of barony (per baroniam in Latin). Early Norman Kings who held land were entitled to attend the Magnum Concilium, or the Great Council. By the 13th century, the Great Council had become the Parliament of England, and feudal baronies were rendered obsolete, which they remain in modern day England. Rather than a title that denotes legal rights or entitlement, the title of baron holds rights of peerage.
Barons as Common Men and Soldiers During Anglo-Saxon England and William I
William I introduced the rank of baron to the country of England in order to determine which people had pledged loyalty to him under the feudal system, which further removed the title of baron from other nobility titles. William I utilized the concept of barones regis, or “barons of the King” from Anglo-Saxon England, where barons of the King were obligated to participate in military service and attend the King’s council. Barons were essentially common men, and were referred to as such by greater nobles, such as Earls of Chester or the Bishops of Durham. They would frequently refer to their tenants as barons whereas lesser magistrates would refer to their tenants as simply “men.”
Greater and Lesser Barons Under Henry II
Barons started to differentiate from a peer group to a stratified class under King Henry II. Originally, all landowners who were given land from the King due to military service held the title of baron, from earl downward. The Dialogus de Scaccario distinguished barons who held per baronian status from knight’s service from lesser barons who were free men that owned land. The titles of lord and baron began to overlap. However, the Lord of a Manor would not use the title of baron.
The Impact of the Magna Carta and Elected Representatives on Greater and Lesser Barons
The case of Thomas Becket in 1164 started the practice of personal summons to greater barons for obligatory presence at the King’s Council which turned into the Parliament and later into the House of Lords. The Magna Carta had a stipulation that lesser barons would receive a single summons as a group, and the group would elect a number of representatives to act on their behalf. The elected representatives later evolved into the Knights of the Shire, and they were elected by the County Courts. A definite distinction was made between barons and common men, and the system developed by Knights of Shire and the presiding sheriff was the predecessor of the House of Commons. Eventually, greater barons lost legal privileges and prestige due to the adoption of a more democratic and comprehensive system of government across multiple European countries.
Creation of New Baronies and the Downfall of Feudal Baronies
Feudal barony was largely replaced by writs of summons obliging a chosen individual to attend Parliament. Letters of patent is practically the only method used to create baronies in modern times, and baronies no longer directly relate to land-holding individuals. Titles of prestige and power associated with feudal barony became increasingly obsolete, and they were officially converted into baronies by writ due to the Abolition Act of 1660.
Additionally, feudal baronies became obsolete without the use of legal force after the Modus Tenendi Parliamenta of 1419, the Tenures Abolition Act of 1660, the Feudal Tenure Act of 1662, and the Fines and Recoveries Act of 1834 were implemented. All baronies became baronies of free socage in which monetary rent payment was required.
Baronies in 20th Century England and Scotland
In the 20th century, Britain introduced the concept of non-hereditary titles of peerage and prestige, or life peers. To date, all individuals with this distinction have been given the title of baron or baroness. However, hereditary peers are to be addressed as “the Noble Lord” in accordance with tradition as well as non-hereditary peers. Baronies are often used as subsidiary titles or courtesy titles for personages of importance. The Scottish nobility title of baron is typically used when a landed family does not have possession of a United Kingdom peerage title of higher prestige or rank. Another common reason baronies are used is as courtesy for the descendant of a higher-ranking peer, such as an earl. Modern barons are given a title to honor tradition and recognize peerage rather than grant additional legal rights.
The Past, Present, and Future of Baronies in the United Kingdom
The evolution of baronies is distinctive among various titles in Europe. Over the centuries, baronies have evolved from common men to esteemed government representatives to personages of importance. Currently, barons and baronesses have unique peer recognition rather than a district title of nobility. In large, modern baronies are appointed due to recognition and tradition. Barons and baronesses have a rich history that will likely continue to evolve beyond the 21st century in the United Kingdom.